Neurological therapeutics have been hampered by its inability to advance beyond symptomatic treatment of neurodegenerative disorders into the realm of actual palliation, arrest or reversal of the attendant pathological processes. While cannabis-based medicines have demonstrated safety, efficacy and consistency sufficient for regulatory approval in spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS), and in Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut Syndromes (LGS), many therapeutic challenges remain. This review will examine the intriguing promise that recent discoveries regarding cannabis-based medicines offer to neurological therapeutics by incorporating the neutral phytocannabinoids tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), their acidic precursors, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), and cannabis terpenoids in the putative treatment of five syndromes, currently labeled recalcitrant to therapeutic success, and wherein improved pharmacological intervention is required: intractable epilepsy, brain tumors, Parkinson disease (PD), Alzheimer disease (AD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI)/chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Current basic science and clinical investigations support the safety and efficacy of such interventions in treatment of these currently intractable conditions, that in some cases share pathological processes, and the plausibility of interventions that harness endocannabinoid mechanisms, whether mediated via direct activity on CB1 and CB2 (tetrahydrocannabinol, THC, caryophyllene), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ; THCA), 5-HT1A (CBD, CBDA) or even nutritional approaches utilizing prebiotics and probiotics. The inherent polypharmaceutical properties of cannabis botanicals offer distinct advantages over the current single-target pharmaceutical model and portend to revolutionize neurological treatment into a new reality of effective interventional and even preventative treatment.
Aggression: THC, CBD, linalool
Sporadic case reports of successful utilization of THC in seizures associated with severe neurological conditions in children in Germany followed (Lorenz, 2004; Gottschling, 2011), but the prime focus returned to CBD due to strong anticonvulsant results in laboratory investigation (Jones et al., 2010), which led directly to a pharmaceutical development program. The lay public quickly became aware of these developments, with promotion of the concept by Project CBD 1 and publicity associated with the case of Charlotte Figi and significant improvement in seizures associated with Dravet syndrome, as portrayed on the Weeds documentary on Cable News Network (Maa and Figi, 2014). Positive survey results (Porter and Jacobson, 2013) were tempered, however, by studies suggesting strong ascertainment bias in parental reporting of seizure frequency: response rate for families moving to the state of Colorado for cannabidiol treatment was 47% vs. only 22% for those already living there, and were three-fold higher for those reporting >50% response (Press et al., 2015). More careful observational studies with a standardized cannabidiol oral extract with THC removed (Epidiolex ® ) provided more compelling results (Devinsky et al., 2016) with a 55% median reduction in seizures in Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS) patients at high dose. Subsequent Phase III results in Dravet syndrome at CBD 20 mg/kg/d showed strong statistical significance in seizure frequency and Caregiver Global Impression of Change (Devinsky et al., 2017). More recent studies have bolstered evidence for safety and efficacy of the preparation in both conditions (Devinsky et al., 2018; Thiele et al., 2018). As a result, it received US Food and Drug Administration approval in June 2018.
Thus, a Type II cannabis preparation, with equal THC and CBD concentration, combining THC, CBD, THCA and even CBDA along with cytotoxic terpenoids such as limonene may prove extremely useful in cancer treatment (Lewis et al., 2018).
Such encouraging results are supplemented by a recent report that THCA is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonist (IC50 = 470 nM, Ki = 209 nM) > CBGA (517.7 nM) and ≫ than CBDA, CBD or THC (Nadal et al., 2017). THCA improved neuronal viability in an animal model of Huntington disease (HD), and decreased striatal neurodegeneration (blocked by PPARγ antagonist), and it was suggested as a therapeutic agent in HD. This finding, however, has much larger implications and could explain claims of therapeutic efficacy in epilepsy noted above (Sun et al., 2008), as well tumors, and perhaps even in major depression (Colle et al., 2017a,b). In contrast to other neutral cannabinoids and terpenoids, THCA is reported not to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but if true, that hindrance may not be applicable in the context of chronic epilepsy (Oby and Janigro, 2006), or in brain tumors wherein that barrier is compromised.
Symptoms of Meningioma
Meningioma is a tumour that usually begin arising from the meningeal tissue of the brain (a tumour that forms on the membranes that covers the brain and spinal cord inside the skull). Meningiomas grow on the surface of the brain (or spinal cord), and therefore push the brain away rather than growing from within it. These tumors can become quite large with diameters of 2 inches (5cm)
Research and Testimonials of how Cannabis Oil can be used to help treat Meningioma
Kieran McCrory, 37, was diagnosed with terminal brain cancer and was told he had about three to five years to live. Radiation treatment left him so physically exhausted and sick that he tried using cannabis oil as an cancer treatment instead. McCrory says the treatment (cannabis oil) literally saved his life.
“They dismissed it. They weren’t taught about cannabis at medical school – more for a political reason than medical I believe.
“The British Medical Journal hasn’t properly investigated cannabis. It was up to me what treatment I took, and I’m glad I researched it.”
“We know that cannabinoids can have a range of different effects on cancer cells grown in the lab and animal tumours,” Dr Kat Arney, from Cancer Research UK told the Daily Mail.
“They told me, ‘eat whatever you like, take all the vitamins you want, it won’t work’.
One of a number of patients providing anecdotal reports that cannabis has improved or cured their medical complaints, experts continue to warn that there is no definitive proof of its effects on cancer in humans.
A cancer patient who was given just months to live has made an incredible recovery, which she credits to using cannabis oil.
Lynn Cameron, 48, from Blantyre, Scotland, was given six to 18 months to live after being diagnosed with an incurable brain tumour in December 2013.