Ross AC, Taylor CL, Yaktine AL, Del Valle HB (eds). Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Institute of Medicine, 2011. Available at: www.nap.edu/catalog/13050/dietary-reference-intakes-for-calcium-and-vitamin-d (accessed April 17, 2016).
Sellmayer A, Witzgall H, Lorenz RL, Weber PC. Effects of dietary fish oil on ventricular premature complexes. Am J Cardiol 1995;76:974-7. View abstract.
Cod liver oil contains certain "fatty acids" that prevent the blood from clotting easily. These fatty acids also reduce pain and swelling.
Galarraga, B., Ho, M., Youssef, H. M., Hill, A., McMahon, H., Hall, C., Ogston, S., Nuki, G., and Belch, J. J. Cod liver oil (n-3 fatty acids) as an non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sparing agent in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology.(Oxford) 2008;47(5):665-669. View abstract.
Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.
Lombardo YB, Chicco A, D’Alessandro ME, et al. Dietary fish oil normalize dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance with unchanged insulin levels in rats fed a high sucrose diet. Biochim Biophys Acta 1996;1299:175-82. View abstract.
Lorenz R, Spengler U, Fischer S, Duhm J, Weber PC. Platelet function, thromboxane formation and blood pressure control during supplementation of the Western diet with cod liver oil. Circulation 1983;67(3):504-11. View abstract.
According to the research, women given primrose oil, fish oil, and calcium experienced an increase of femoral (thigh) bone density of 1.3 percent (versus a loss of 2.3 percent in the placebo group). While the bone density of the lumbar spine remained unchanged in primrose oil group, the placebo group experienced a decrease in bone density of 3.2 percent.
Evening primrose oil has long been used by women to treat hot flashes during menopause. Hot flashes are a form of flushing caused by reduced levels of the hormone estradiol.
If you are strictly vegan or vegetarian, only choose brands labeled “vegetarian-safe” or “vegetarian soft gels.” Unless this is stated clearly on the label, the capsule may be made with animal-based gelatin (usually beef or pig).
Dietary supplements like evening primrose oil are not required to undergo the rigorous testing that pharmaceutical drugs do. Instead, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration imposes certain standards regarding the manufacture and labeling of the supplement. Even so, there is often considerable variation in the quality of supplements like evening primrose oil.
To extend the shelf life of the oil, keep it in its original container (typically blue to prevent sun exposure) and store it in the refrigerator. Although primrose oil can keep for up to six months in the refrigerator, for greatest efficacy, buy only as much as you can use within three months.
Advise your doctor if you are taking evening primrose oil—or any supplement—to avoid drug interactions and potentially serious side effects.
In 1993, evening primrose oil was first proposed as a possible treatment of diabetic neuropathy, an often debilitating nerve pain mainly affecting the feet and legs. Since then, there has been evidence to support some of these claims.
CBD oil should be avoided during pregnancy and breastfeeding. A 2018 study from the American Academy of Pediatrics warned women to avoid marijuana during pregnancy due to the potential risks to a baby’s development. Although it is unclear how CBD contributes, CBD is known to pass through the placental barrier.
There are no guidelines for the appropriate use of CBD oil. CBD oil is usually delivered sublingually (under the tongue). Most oils are sold in 30-milliliter (mL) bottles with a dropper cap.
There have also been suggestions that CBD may aid in the treatment of cannabis and nicotine addiction. Further research is needed.
Clinical research has shown that CBD oil can trigger side effects. Severity and type can vary from one person to the next.
As CBD grows in popularity, so does the research on it but there are currently few clinical studies on the effects of CBD oil. As such, some of these claims are better supported by studies than others.
Common symptoms include:
To determine an exact dose of CBD, remember that each drop of oil equals 0.05 mL of fluid. This means that a 30-mL bottle of CBD oil will have roughly 600 drops. If the concentration of the tincture is 1,500 mg/mL, one drop would contain 2.5 mg of CBD (1,500 mg ÷ 600 drops = 2.5 mg).