The Science-based Facts About CBD Effects on the Skin: Data From the Library of Medicine CBD products have exploded onto the marketplace as a result of the farm bill that legalized hemp agriculture. Both oral and topical products are now being widely sold in states that allow CBD sales. Accompanying the hundreds of pro Pigmentation marks can be very annoying. CBD Oil is a tried and tested skincare product with great potential against pigmentation spots! Have you ever wondered if CBD could help your pesky dark marks? Here we answer the question: can CBD help hyperpigmentation? Read on to find out more!
What is Actually Known About CBD’s Effects on Skin
CBD products have exploded onto the marketplace as a result of the farm bill that legalized hemp agriculture. Both oral and topical products are now being widely sold in states that allow CBD sales. Accompanying the hundreds of products now on the market are a multitude of therapeutic “claims” that these products can treat a wide variety of medical problems, including pain, arthritis, psoriasis, aging and even cancer. Given all of the claims for benefits of using CBD products, it is important to understand what the real science and clinical evidence is regarding CBD’s effects both orally and topically.
First of all, evidence that cannabinoids occur naturally in the body dates back over 60 years. Since that time, the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) has been studied in depth. The ECS is made up of:
- the endocannabinoids (like CBD) that interact with the receptors of the ECS
- the main receptors for cannabinoids, CB1 and CB2, which are found in the central and peripheral nervous system as well as on skin cells
- various specific enzymes that either synthesize cannabinoids or degrade them. The body actually makes its own cannabinoids and these are called endocannabinoids
However, the cannabinoids that have received all the attention lately are the phytocannabinoids that are derived from plants, like cannabis and hemp.
The Take Home Lesson
For those that don’t wish to read the full report below regarding what is really known about CBD effects on the skin when applied topically, the take-home message is:
- As of April, 2021, there are NO peer-reviewed publications of controlled clinical studies that describe any benefit of CBD to the skin when applied topically. There are three non-controlled “anecdotal” human studies, several mice and rat studies, and many studies of CBD effects on cultured skin cells. So, at present, we simply don’t know if topically applied CBD products provide ANY benefits.
Although there has been a lot of research regarding cannabinoids, the only in depth clinical studies that have been conducted have looked at effects of cannabinoids after either ingesting, inhaling or injecting the cannabinoids. There have been essentially no published controlled clinical studies on the effects of topically applied cannabinoids. This is surprising in light of the numerous claims showing up on the internet about all the wonderful things cannabinoids can do. If one wants to know what “claims” that show up on the internet are true and which are false, the ONLY way to accurately assess truth from fiction is to do your research on the Library of Medicine’s database. Pubmed (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed), the Library of Medicine’s online searchable database lists every peer-reviewed scientific publication related to a given subject.
A search of the Pubmed database using the search words cannabidiol (CBD) turned up over 3000 publications that have appeared over the years, with most dealing with the oral use of CBD to either treat epilepsy (the only FDA approved CBD medicine is Epidiolex) or to reduce pain. Many other published studies have focused on analyzing CBD content in various cannabis extracts. When the term “cannabidiol” was combined with “skin”, only 62 publications were found. Of these 62, there were only THREE clinical studies on the topical effect of cannabinoids on skin, and these were carried out with very small numbers of patients, which does not provide any statistically significant results. As a result these studies are considered “anecdotal” and not controlled studies. A quick summary of all the results of peer reviewed scientific articles on cannabinoids is listed below.
- Although there have been a few mice and rat studies on topically applied cannabinoids, there have been only three published reports of clinical studies on the topical use of cannabidiol.
- In one study patients with mild to moderate scalp psoriasis or seborrheic dermatitis were given a shampoo containing cannabidiol. After 14 days of use, the level of itching and redness had decreased in the patients.
- In a second very small study of 16 patients, they were asked to evaluate the effect of a topical cannabidiol lotion on their eczema. After 2 weeks of use, the patients “self-reported” an modest improvement in the severity of their eczema.
- In a third small study, patients treated topically with 8% CBD reported having less nerve pain.
- NOTE: in addition to the above studies, a non-clinical study with only 3 individuals suffering from a rare skin blistering disease, epidermolysis bullosa, applied a topical CBD oil to their skin and all 3 reported less blistering.
- A topical preparation of CBD was shown to reduce inflammation and swelling in the foot of a mouse injected with an irritant.
- Rats treated topically with CBD and then exposed to a UVB lamp showed protection of keratinocytes from apoptosis (cell death caused by UV radiation). Whether or not CBD was simply acting as a sunscreen was not determined.
- Mice treated on the ears with a tumor promoter to trigger inflammation showed less ear edema (swelling) in the ear treated with CBD.
- Changes in the proteome profile of UVB treated fibroblasts.
- CBD induces the expression of antioxidant enzyme genes in keratinocytes treated with UVR.
- CBD blocks the NF-kB pathway that leads to the activation of inflammatory genes in UVR stimulated keratinocytes.
- CBD reduces keratinocyte proliferation, which may be useful for treating psoriasis but may not be good for normal skin turnover.
- CBD reduces free radical (ROS) levels in keratinocytes.
- CBD is a gene suppressor and can lower keratin levels in keratinocytes
- CBD stimulates melanogenesis (pigmentation) in human melanocytes.
- Hemp extract protects keratinocytes and fibroblasts from hydrogen peroxide toxicitiy by blocking ROS (free radicals) and by inhibiting the inflammatory mediator, PGE-2.
- CBD reduces sebum production in cultured sebocytes, which might be useful for acne.
- CBD increases activity of NRF-2 and this leads to increased antioxidant (superoxide dismutase). CBD also prevented cells damaged by UVB from undergoing apoptosis (cell death). Note: the value of keeping potentially mutated cells alive may not be a good thing.
- CBD may lower ROS levels.
- Flax extract inhibited inflammation but stimulated MMPs in a wound healing model, which may be good for wound healing but bad for maintenance of the dermal matrix.
As you can see, research on CBD is in its infancy and there is almost NO clinical data showing any beneficial effects of topical CBD on human skin. Given the available data, what effect on the skin might we expect to see if we applied CBD topically?
- CBD and keratinocyte growth: The keratinocytes in our skin are dividing all the time at the basal layer of the epidermis and from there they migrate to the skin’s surface to replace those dead, cornified keratinocytes that make up the stratum corneum. The stratum corneum is a critically important protective barrier that protects us against environmental damage by pathogenic bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, UV radiation and water loss. We know that in a young person, the epidermis “turns over” about every 40-45 days (recent studies suggest that the complete turnover of the epidermis takes longer than the 30 day time period that has been used for years). We also know that this “turnover rate” decreases as you get older, due, in large part, to a reduction in the proliferation rate of keratinocytes at the basal layer of the epidermis (age can cause up to a 50% reduction in keratinocyte mitosis). Thus, fewer keratinocytes migrate to the surface and the skin becomes thinner as we age. An article in the Journal of Dermatological Science (Wilkinson and Williamson (2007), J.Dermatol Sci: 45: 87-92) describes the inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation/growth by cannabinoids. In addition, a more recent research study has shown that cannabidiol, as well as other cannabinoids, inhibit the expression of genes that code for important keratinocyte proteins (Pucci, M. et al (2013); Br.J. Pharmacol. 170: 581-591). These proteins, including Keratin 1 and 10, and involucrin, are important structural components of the epidermis. Since these proteins are critical for the normal development, strength and barrier properties of the stratum corneum, inhibiting their production and lowering their levels in the skin, weakens the skin’s barrier.
So, although the use of CBD in slowing the proliferation of keratinocytes might be helpful in reducing psoriatic plaques caused by rapidly growing keratinocytes, and might even help treat skin cancer, there is no data at present that its use in normal skin care and “anti-aging” products will provide any benefits. And based on the available data, topical CBD might cause skin thinning and a loss of barrier function.
- CBD Effects on Inflammation: At the present time there is no scientifically published human data on any anti-inflammatory effect of topically applied A few studies with cell cultures have shown that CBD can lower the level of the inflammatory mediator, TNF-alpha, in leukocytes, block IL-6 and IL-8 production in human monocytes and macrophages, lower COX-2 (PGE-2) expression in macrophages, and block inflammatory cytokines in keratinocytes (Pellati, F; et al; (2018) Biomed Res. Intl. ID. 1691428). Finally, a recent publication has shown that Flax Fiber (which contains several chemicals, including CBD) might be useful as a wound dressing to accelerate healing. Recently, a derivative of CBD, VCE-004, was found to INHIBIT collagen production in human dermal fibroblasts (Del Rio, C., et al., 2018, Br.J.Pharmacol. 175:3813). For a very recent review on what is known about CBD effects on inflammation see Baswan, S.M et al. (2020) Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology. 13:927-942. So although cell culture studies suggest that CBD may provide anti-inflammatory benefits, at present, there are no clinical studies that demonstrate any anti-aging or anti-inflammatory effects of CBD when applied topically to the skin.
- CBD Stimulates Pigmentation A recent study on human melanocytes grown in culture found that CBD can stimulate melanogenesis in these cells by increasing tyrosinase activity and by activating a number of melanogenic specific genes ( Hwang, YS. Et al (2017) Chem. Biol. Interact. 273: 107-114). Given this finding, while topical CBD might be useful as a “tanning stimulator” it may aggravate an existing hyperpigmentation (age spot) condition.
- CBD Inhibits Sebum Production One of the potentially beneficial uses of a topical CBD product might be for controlling acne breakouts. A recent publication has shown that CBD can reduce sebum production in human sebocytes (Olah, A et al. (2016), Exp. Dermatol. 25:701-707. While retinoic acid also inhibits sebum production, and improves acne, further research might find that CBD provides the same benefit without the redness, and drying seen with the use of topical retinoic acid.
- CBD Reduces Neuropathy Pain. One recent study (Xu, DH. et al. 2019, Curr.Pharm.Biotechnol.) conducted with a small group of patients (29) showed that an 8% topical solution of CBD could reduce pain caused by neuropathy.
- CBD Inhibits Growth of Cancer Cells One of the more promising effects of CBD is its ability to slow the growth rate of cancer cells, including breast cancer. The mechanism of action of CBD likely involves an antagonism of one or both of the endocannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. Both of these receptors play a role in tumor progression, with CB2 playing the greater role in stimulating breast cancer growth and tumor aggressiveness. By blocking the activity of these receptors, CBD lower cancer cell prolilferatoin and also causes cancer cell apoptosis (cell death). For an excellent review on CBD and breast cancer, see Kiskova, T. et al. (2019) Intl. J. Molec.Sci. 20: 1673-1694.
In summary, there is considerable peer-reviewed scientifically credible research that shows positive effects of oral CBD on anxiety, stress, and aggressiveness, and on preventing epileptic seizures. In fact, the only FDA approved CBD drug for epilepsy is Epidiolex, a drug that is effective in reducing the frequency of seizures. In addition, there is growing evidence that CBD may be useful in reducing the growth rates of some cancers.
At present there have been only 3 published, very small clinical studies on the effectiveness of topical CBD in treating any skin problem; one on the use of CBD for treating scalp psoriasis/seborrheic dermatitis, one that involved only patient “self- evaluation” on the benefit of topical CBD for eczema, and finally, one small study where patients used a topical CBD lotion to reduce nerve pain. Research on human cells grown in culture suggests that CBD does have some anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, there is currently no published data that topical CBD provides any benefits for normal skin, and no data showing any anti-aging benefits.
CBD Oil and pigmentation spots
Pigmentation spots can be a real nuisance, particularly facial ones. We know that many people use CBD products to treat a range of skin conditions, ranging from acne and psoriasis to eczema and dry skin. CBD Oil is suited for all skin types as it nourishes and softens the skin while helping prevent wrinkles. But can CBD Oil also help against pigmentation spots? We did the research for you!
What are pigmentation spots?
Hyperpigmentation, as pigmentation spots or pigmentation marks are also known, expresses itself through dark patterns of spots and patches on the skin caused by excessive melanin production. This is a natural pigment that also determines our skin and hair colour. Melanin is produced by cells known as melanocytes located in the outer layer of the skin. Exposure to sunlight causes melanin to darken the skin as protection against harmful UV radiation. Many people experience pigmentation spots as blemishes on the skin, especially when they are highly visible on facial skin.
What causes hyperpigmentation?
Pigmentation marks can be causes by several factors:
- Sunlight and UV radiation: overexposure to sunlight and UV rays can damage your skin. Skin cells respond by excessive melanin production causing hyperpigmentation marks in exposed locations;
- Homones: certain hormones can cause hyperpigmentation. During pregnancy, women sometimes have a condition called melasma involving pigmentation marks. Contraceptives, certain medication, and cosmetics can also trigger hyperpigmentation;
- Inflammation: wounds and skin lesions lesions can trigger inflammation responses that sometimes damage melanocytes. Such skin trauma can cause hyperpigmentation by darkening patches of skin around the damaged areas;
- External pollutants: air pollution and particles released into the atmosphere can penetrate the skin and become trapped in deeper skin layers. This can damage surrounding cells through free radicals, which in turn may cause melanocytes to increase melanin production and create pigmentation spots.
What are free radicals?
Put simply, free radicals are chemical side-products of the body’s physiological processes. Whenever food is metabolized, the body initiates chemical reactions involving oxygen – oxidation – that release free radicals.
Even the healthiest lifestyle cannot avoid free radicals altogether. Fortunately, these free radicals are relatively harmless because the body produces its own neutralising countermeasures.
Some free radical enter the body from the outside, however. Chemicals in make-up, air pollution, and the sun’s UV rays are all sources of external free radicals. These non-bodily free radicals tend to be more harmful as the body is unable to purge all of them all the time.
Can pigmentation marks be treated?
You can try to prevent and reduce pigmentation spots in several ways:
- Avoid sunlight and use appropriate sun protection;
- Certain salves and creams contain ingredients that can help reduce pigmentation spots. Be careful what you use on your face, however, because some of these product contain highly aggressive chemicals;
- Laser therapy can be helpful for removing pigmentation marks. The bursts of light destroy melanin inside the cells to reduce the dark discolouration.
How can CBD Oil help against pigmentation spots?
We all know that true beauty resides within – and CBD Oil is the perfect embodiment of this maxim! Our human physiology encompasses a multitude of processes that are constantly trying to preserve the body’s internal balance or homeostasis. These processes are governed by a single overarching system called the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS directs and coordinates all processes to maintain a dynamic state of balance while our environment keeps changing. Scientists have found endocannabinoid receptors all throughout the body, including in the skin.
CBD Oil is uniquely capable of interacting with the ECS. The cannabinoids in the oil are capable of influencing the receptors of the endocannabinoid system. In doing so, cannabidiol helps keep your skin healthy while protecting it by ensuring hormonal balance, countering inflammation, and regulating production of suet and melanin.
CBD Oil has antioxidant properties and essential fatty acids
CBD is an antioxidant. Antioxidants are chemicals that counter oxidation in skin cells. This allows antioxidants to help the body neutralise free radicals, preventing them from harming skin or other tissues. This is how CBD Oil can help prevent pigmentation spots and keep your skin healthy and vibrant!
CBD Oil contains high concentrations of essential fatty acids that nourish and hydrate the skin. Sadly, we cannot produce our own essential fatty acids, so applying CBD products onto your skin can help maintain a smooth, soft, and supple skin.
CBD Oil against skin problems
In addition to hydrating the skin, CBD also has soothing properties that can help calm your skin as well as your mind! This makes CBD Oil a great candidate to relieve rashes, dry skin, and even eczema or psoriasis. It has also been proven effective in case of scar tissue. CBD Oil can help heal wounds faster and reduce scarring. Even wrinkles can be prevented by applying CBD Skincare products! Since any skin damage can lead to hyperpigmentation, making sure your skin is well-nourished and calm can help reduce and prevent pigmentation marks.
CBD Oil for hormonal balance
We have seen how hormones can be a cause of hyperpigmentation. CBD can interact with the endocannabinoid system to balance the endocrine system. This allows CBD Oil to restore hormonal balance after disruptions to prevent pigmentation spots before they arise.
CBD Oil against pigmentation spots
The antioxidant properties of CBD Oil can help brighten your skin and help pigmentation spots fade. They aid your skin in recovering from free radical influences like UV radiation, which in turn helps stop and prevent hyperpigmentation.
The best CBD products against hyperpigmentation
Our Full Spectrum CBD Oil and premium CBD Tablets can both help you stay healthy from within by working with the ECS to stop pigmentation spots. And don’t forget that CBD Oil can also be applied directly onto the skin for topical effects!
CBD Argan Skincare
Our CBD Argan Cream and CBD Argan Salve were specifically designed for direct skin application. They let you put CBD to use as a local antioxidant, while added vitamins ease skin recovery and improve its overall condition. Their organic argan oil is a rich source of antioxidants and essential fatty acids for additional hyperpigmentation reduction and prevention. Always keep in mind that CBD Skincare is no sunscreen product: always use high-SPF protection to shield your skin from bright sunlight and harmful UV rays on top of your CBD beauty products!
Can CBD help hyperpigmentation?
While skin pigmentation like freckles is now cherished and seen as cute, more patchy and irregular pigmentation can cause even the most confident person to feel insecure about their skin.
While many ingredients are touted as so-called “miracle” remedies, we’ve sifted through all the information and separated fact from fiction. As a brand that loves CBD, we’ve done our research to answer the question: can CBD help hyperpigmentation?
What is hyperpigmentation?
While you may know hyperpigmentation as the annoying dark marks on your skin, there is much more to the pesky blemishes.
Hyperpigmentation is a skin condition where the skin develops patches darker than the surrounding area. This occurs when there is an increase in melanin, the pigment that gives us our normal skin, eye and hair colour.
This excess melanin forms deposits in the skin, which is what gives the appearance of dark patches. Hyperpigmentation can affect anyone, regardless of race.
Can CBD help hyperpigmentation?
While research is still ongoing, CBD is known to have strong anti-inflammatory properties. These can be great for skin health and can be beneficial to skin conditions such as acne and eczema, making hyperpigmentation less likely.
It is also known to have antibiotic properties that can help kill bacteria, preventing infections on the skin that could lead to hyperpigmentation.
Suppose you use CBD on skin that already has hyperpigmentation caused by acne or the body trying to heal damage from the sun. In that case, CBD may alleviate some symptoms of inflammation and skin irritation.
This could cause the dark colour to fade as the body doesn’t see it as injured anymore.
CBD oil also has calming and hydrating properties that can help soothe the skin, which can help with hyperpigmentation.
What causes hyperpigmentation?
Several things can lead to hyperpigmentation, and sometimes there can be more than one factor causing it. Let’s take a look at the main causes of hyperpigmentation.
Hyperpigmentation caused by the sun
Sun exposure is a leading cause of hyperpigmentation. Sunlight triggers the production of melanin. Melanin acts as your body’s natural sunscreen by protecting your skin from harmful UV rays.
You can thank melanin for your lovely natural glowing skin in summer, but overexposure to the sun disrupts this natural process and can lead to hyperpigmentation.
What’s more, sun exposure can worsen existing hyperpigmentation, darkening the patches even more. This is why it is vital to use sun cream before venturing outside, even if you are going outside for only a few minutes.
Sun cream is sometimes the only thing standing between you and getting hyperpigmentation, or worsening your hyperpigmentation.
Hyperpigmentation caused by hormones
Hormonal changes are the leading cause of a form of hyperpigmentation known as melasma. Melasma is hyperpigmentation caused by the overproduction of melanin stimulated by the female sex hormones progesterone and estrogen when skin is exposed to the sun. It can also be a side effect of hormone treatments and contraceptive pills.
This form of hyperpigmentation is prevalent among women but is not unheard of among men.
Hyperpigmentation caused by age
As you age, the number of melanocytes (melanin-producing cells) decreases while the ones that remain get bigger and become more focused. This is why you start getting an increasing number of age spots in your 40s and 50s.
Age spots are a form of hyperpigmentation that usually appear on areas of skin exposed to the sun. It is common in people over the age of 40 but can also occur in younger people who frequently use tanning beds or get sunburned often.
Hyperpigmentation caused by skin injuries
Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation can occur after injured skin and inflammation have healed. The injuries or inflammation can be things such as:
- Chemical Burns
- Atopic Dermatitis
After these afflictions heal, skin appears darker and discoloured. Sun exposure can exacerbate this type of hyperpigmentation.
Hyperpigmentation caused by illness and medication
Hyperpigmentation can also be a symptom of various illnesses such as autoimmune diseases and vitamin deficiencies. Certain medications can also trigger it, such as:
- Anti-seizure medication
- Chemotherapy drugs
As can be seen above, there are many potential causes of hyperpigmentation. But is there any way to prevent it?
How to prevent hyperpigmentation
Luckily, it’s not all bad news – you can take steps to prevent hyperpigmentation. The most important thing you need to consider is the sun.
Protecting your skin from the sun is the most crucial step you can take to prevent or avoid worsening hyperpigmentation. Sun cream needs to become your new best friend, and you need to realise that you can’t go anywhere, even on cloudy days, without wearing sun cream. You should wear it at all times, even when you’re not outside, as sunlight can penetrate windows.
Limit your skin’s sun exposure by avoiding the sun during the hottest hours and wearing protective clothing such as sun hats.
You should be applying sun cream every morning and if you’re going to be outdoors, reapply every two hours.
Your skin needs protection from the sun to avoid forming these spots and ensure existing ones don’t worsen.
Skincare ingredients that help with hyperpigmentation
There are various vitamins, minerals and other skin-loving ingredients that help with hyperpigmentation, many of which are in Poko products.
A powerful antioxidant, vitamin C can help reduce the appearance of scarring and even out your skin tone by boosting collagen production. The Poko products that contain this brightening ingredient are:
Aloe vera is super hydrating and has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. The antioxidants found in aloe vera fight the effects of UV damage, such as hyperpigmentation. Our products that contain this soothing yet powerful ingredient are:
Rich in antioxidants, vitamin E helps combat the free radicals that affect your skin and helps improve the appearance of dark marks. Our products that contain this excellent ingredient are:
As mentioned before, CBD is great for maintaining healthy skin. Its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties help protect skin from infection or damage that can lead to hyperpigmentation. It can even help soothe skin, making hyperpigmentation due to damage or inflammation less likely, which can also help dark patches that are already present.
More studies need to be done on CBD, but evidence found in past research looks promising.
Hyperpigmentation can be a source of great frustration and anxiety, but there is no need to accept the dark patches of skin and give in to despair. There are various ways to improve the bothersome marks and prevent them from forming in the first place. All you have to do is remember that sun cream is your best friend, and you need to wear it every single day.
Secondly, you need to look after your skin. Healthy skin is glowing skin, so make sure you are keeping your skin hydrated and nourished. Our products are made to give you the best skin you’ve ever had, filled with ingredients like CBD that keep your skin moisturised and healthy and improve its appearance.
The ingredients in Poko products are natural and backed by science. Take a look at all our products to see all we have to offer. There is something for everyone!
If you’ve liked reading this, check out our blog on: Hyperpigmentation: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment