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cannabidiol and anti inflammatory

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Some CBD manufacturers have come under government scrutiny for wild, indefensible claims, such that CBD is a cure-all for cancer, which it is not. We need more research but CBD may be prove to be an option for managing anxiety, insomnia, and chronic pain. Without sufficient high-quality evidence in human studies we can’t pinpoint effective doses, and because CBD is currently is mostly available as an unregulated supplement, it’s difficult to know exactly what you are getting. If you decide to try CBD, talk with your doctor — if for no other reason than to make sure it won’t affect other medications you are taking.

CBD has been touted for a wide variety of health issues, but the strongest scientific evidence is for its effectiveness in treating some of the cruelest childhood epilepsy syndromes, such as Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), which typically don’t respond to antiseizure medications. In numerous studies, CBD was able to reduce the number of seizures, and, in some cases, it was able to stop them altogether. Videos of the effects of CBD on these children and their seizures are readily available on the Internet for viewing, and they are quite striking. Recently the FDA approved the first ever cannabis-derived medicine for these conditions, Epidiolex, which contains CBD.

CBD stands for cannabidiol. It is the second most prevalent of the active ingredients of cannabis (marijuana). While CBD is an essential component of medical marijuana, it is derived directly from the hemp plant, which is a cousin of the marijuana plant. While CBD is a component of marijuana (one of hundreds), by itself it does not cause a "high." According to a report from the World Health Organization, "In humans, CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential…. To date, there is no evidence of public health related problems associated with the use of pure CBD."

The bottom line on cannabidiol

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CBD is commonly used to address anxiety, and for patients who suffer through the misery of insomnia, studies suggest that CBD may help with both falling asleep and staying asleep.

Cannabidiol (CBD) has been recently covered in the media, and you may have even seen it as an add-in booster to your post-workout smoothie or morning coffee. What exactly is CBD? Why is it suddenly so popular?

CBD may offer an option for treating different types of chronic pain. A study from the European Journal of Pain showed, using an animal model, CBD applied on the skin could help lower pain and inflammation due to arthritis. Another study demonstrated the mechanism by which CBD inhibits inflammatory and neuropathic pain, two of the most difficult types of chronic pain to treat. More study in humans is needed in this area to substantiate the claims of CBD proponents about pain control.

COPD is a chronic respiratory disease with considerable unmet medical needs [18]. In 2017, 3.91 million people died from COPD worldwide, and because of its growing prevalence and mortality rate, COPD is expected to become the world's third most common cause of death by 2030 [19]. COPD includes a group of chronic lung conditions characterised by poorly reversible airflow obstruction, abnormal and chronic non-allergic inflammation of the airway, mucous plugging and airway remodelling [20]. This chronic and pathological airway response can result in excessive cough and mucus production (chronic bronchitis), alveolar destruction (emphysema) and/or lesions in the smaller conducting airways (bronchiolitis) [21]. The aberrant inflammatory response in the lungs, particularly in the small airways, is the outcome of the innate and adaptive immune responses to long-term exposure to toxic particles and gases, especially cigarette smoke and other oxidant pollution [20]. Other sources may trigger the development of the disease, such as alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency and telomerase polymorphisms [22]. This response is associated with an increased number of activated macrophages, neutrophils (both part of the innate immune response), T lymphocytes (Tc1, Th1 and ILC3 cells; adaptative immunity) [18] and in some cases, eosinophils [23]. These activated inflammatory cells release inflammatory mediators such as interleukin 8 (IL-8), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), which orchestrate the pathological structural and airway changes in COPD. These changes include tissue remodelling, chronic airways inflammation, oxidative stress, proteinase imbalances and accelerated ageing [24]. As the disease progresses, the degree of inflammation driven primarily by neutrophils also evolves [18].

Exposure to LPS (100 μg/ml; 20 min) resulted in a significant increase in total leukocytes in BAL fluid obtained 4 h ±30 min post-exposure (saline: 101 ± 7 × 10 4 vs LPS: 348 ± 115 × 10 4 leukocytes/ml, P < 0.001; Fig. 1 A; n = 4 for each group). A differential count of the leukocyte cells in the BAL indicated that neutrophils accounted for this increase in cell numbers (saline: 7 ± 7 × 10 4 vs LPS: 277 ± 83 × 10 4 neutrophils/ml (P < 0.0001, n = 4 per group) and represented 97 ± 7% of the total

Section snippets

Our results suggest that the plant cannabinoids CBD and CBG have significant anti-inflammatory activity in the lung, but that formulation is critical to delivering an effective dose of these agents.

Various studies have suggested the use of cannabinoids as possible treatments for inflammatory diseases in the airways, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [7,8]. The phytocannabinoids Δ 9 -THC [9], cannabidiol (CBD) [10] and cannabigerol (CBG) [11] are of particular interest due to their important effects on inflammation and the immune system, including inhibiting the activation of pro-inflammatory cells and the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators or reducing intracellular and mitochondrial oxidative stress [12]. Additionally, it has been reported that CBD exhibits apoptotic properties in immune cell populations, leading to cannabinoid-induced immunosuppression [13]. CBD and CBG alone, and in combination, have demonstrated apoptotic effects in tumour cells, in addition to their off-target effects essential for effective palliative care such as increased appetite, analgesic and anxiolytic properties [14]. On the other hand, CBD [15] and CBG [16] have been demonstrated to exhibit anti-apoptotic properties in healthy cells under oxidative and inflammatory conditions. The anti-apoptotic effects of cannabinoids are mainly associated with cytokine modulation and antioxidant activity via downregulation of nitric oxide production [17].

In conclusion, this study has provided evidence that CBD and CBG formulated appropriately exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. Our observations suggest that these non-psychoactive cannabinoids may have beneficial effects in treating diseases characterised by airway inflammation.